This glossary is provided for your information only; it is not meant to be relied upon as a complete or authoritative description of the terms defined below or of the privacy and/or security ramifications of the technologies described.


The use of a password, certificate, personal identification number (PIN), or other information to validate an identity over a computer network.
A collection of web page copies stored on your computer's hard disk or in its random-access memory (RAM). KompoZer accumulates these copies as you browse the Web. When you click a link or type a URL to fetch a particular web page for which the cache already contains a copy, KompoZer compares the cached copy to the original. If there have been no changes, KompoZer uses the cached copy rather than refetching the original, saving processing and download time.
The digital equivalent of an ID card. A certificate specifies the name of an individual, company, or other entity and certifies that a public key, which is included in the certificate, belongs to that entity. When you digitally sign a message or other data, the digital signature for that message is created with the aid of the private key that corresponds to the public key in your certificate.
Software (such as an Internet browser) that sends requests to and receives information from a server, which is usually running on a different computer. A computer on which client software runs is also described as a client.
The art and practice of scrambling (encrypting) and unscrambling (decrypting) information. For example, cryptographic techniques are used to scramble and unscramble information flowing between commercial web sites and KompoZer.
Cascading Style Sheets(CSS)
CSS is a simple mechanism to add style e.g. fonts, colors, positioning, etc to web documents. CSS allows complete and total control over the style of a hypertext document.
The process of unscrambling data that has been encrypted. See also encryption.
digital ID
See certificate.
The process of scrambling information in a way that disguises its meaning. For example, encrypted connections between computers make it very difficult for third-parties to unscramble, or decrypt, information flowing over the connection. Encrypted information can be decrypted only by someone who possesses the appropriate key.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
An open standard for describing data. Unlike HTML, XML allows the developer of a web page to define special tags. For more information, see the online W3C document Extensible Markup Language (XML).
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A File Transfer Protocol(FTP) is a protocol standard for transfering computer files between different computers connected via a network. A remote computer, the FTP server, accepts connections from other computers called clients. Once the connection is established, clients can get files from the server or put files on the server depending upon the login account privileges.However, a security hole in FTP is that passwords are sent as clear text, unlike sFTP. KompoZer Site Manager uses FTP for publishing web pages.
Federal Information Processing Standards Publications (FIPS PUBS) 140-1 is a US government standard for implementations of cryptographic modules — hardware or software that encrypts and decrypts data or performs other cryptographic operations (such as creating or verifying digital signatures). Many products sold to the US government must comply with one or more of the FIPS standards.
helper application
Any application that is used to open or view a file downloaded by KompoZer. A plug-in is a special kind of helper application that installs itself into the Plugins directory of the main KompoZer installation directory and can typically be opened within KompoZer itself. Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, and other external applications are considered helper applications but not plug-ins, because they don't install themselves into the browser directory but can be opened from the download dialog box.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
The document format used for web pages. The HTML standard defines tags, or codes, used to define the text layout, fonts, style, images, and other elements that make up a web page.
A worldwide network of millions of computers that communicate with each other using standard protocols such as TCP/IP. Originally developed for the US military in 1969, the Internet grew to include educational and research institutions and, in the late 1990s, millions of businesses, organizations, and individuals. Today the Internet is used for email, browsing the World Wide Web, instant messaging, mailing lists and usegroups, and many other purposes.
Internet protocol address (IP address)
The address of a computer on a TCP/IP network. Every computer on the Internet has an IP address. Clients have either a permanent IP address or one that is dynamically assigned to them each time they connect with the network.
A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. A single Java program can run on many different kinds of computers, thus avoiding the need for programmers to create a separate version of each program for each kind of computer. After Java is installed, KompoZer can automatically download and run Java programs (also called applets).
A scripting language commonly used to construct web pages. Programmers use JavaScript to make web pages more interactive; JavaScript is often used to dynamically validate forms and select buttons. JavaScript can be used with Java, but it is technically a separate language. Java is not required for JavaScript to work correctly.
master password
A password used to protect saved passwords and other private data. KompoZer will prompt you for your master password when you wish to access this data. If you have multiple security devices, each security device will require a separate master password.
The toolbar near the top of the KompoZer window that includes the Back and Forward buttons.
Password Manager
The part of KompoZer that can help you remember some or all of your names and passwords by storing them on your computer's hard disk and entering them for you automatically when you visit such sites.
PKCS #11
The public-key cryptography standard that governs security devices such as smart cards.
A type of helper application that adds new capabilities to KompoZer, such as the ability to play audio or video clips. Unlike other kinds of helper applications, a plug-in application installs itself into the Plugins directory within the main KompoZer installation directory and typically can be opened within KompoZer itself (internally). For example, an audio plug-in lets you listen to audio files on a web page or in an e-mail message. Macromedia Flash Player and Java are both examples of plug-in applications.
private key
One of a pair of keys used in public-key cryptography. The private key is kept secret and is used to decrypt data that has been encrypted with the corresponding public key.
An intermediary or "go-between" program that acts as both a server and a client for the purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients.
The process of uploading web document(s) to a web server is called publishing. It is only after publishing your web documents to the web server others can view the documents using their clients. In KompoZer, the Site Manager accomplishes the task of publishing.
search engine
A web-based program that allows users to search for and retrieve specific information from the World Wide Web. The search engine may search the full text of web documents or a list of keywords; it may also use librarians who review web documents and index them manually for retrieval. Typically, the user types a word or phrase into a search box, and the search engine displays links to relevant web pages.
Secure Shell File Transfer Protocol
Secure Shell File Transfer Protocol(sFTP) is similar to FTP with the difference that the session is encrypted making it more secure.
secure site
A site that uses encryption in connections with KompoZer to prevent other malicious Internet users from viewing transmitted data. When you visit secure sites, KompoZer displays a lock icon in the Status Bar and the Location Bar. KompoZer also displays the site's domain name in the Status Bar (to prevent malicious sites from stealing your data) and turns the background of the Location Bar to yellow.
Some sites may consist of both secure and insecure data; the insecure data usually is non-private, although it isn't guaranteed to be so. For such sites KompoZer will display a lock icon with a slash through it in the Status Bar and Location Bar and will not display the site's domain name in the Status Bar so that you know that the current web page isn't completely secure.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
A protocol that allows mutual authentication between a client and a server for the purpose of establishing an authenticated and encrypted connection. SSL runs above TCP/IP and below HTTP, LDAP, IMAP, NNTP, and other high-level network protocols. The new Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard called Transport Layer Security (TLS) is based on SSL. See also authentication, encryption.
Software (such as software that serves up web pages) that receives requests from and sends information to a client, which is usually running on a different computer. A computer on which server software runs is also described as a server.
Site Manager
The part of KompoZer which manages the uploading and downloading of the web documents created with KompoZer. The Site Manager uses FTP to transfer the web documents to and from the web server.
Status Bar
The toolbar that appears at the bottom of any KompoZer window. It shows the tags enclosing the current cursor position.
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A Unix protocol used to connect computers running a variety of operating systems. TCP/IP is an essential Internet protocol and has become a global standard.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
The standardized address that tells KompoZer how to locate a file or other resource on the Web (for example, Type URLs into KompoZer's Location Bar to access web pages. URLs are also used in the links on web pages go to other web pages. Also known as an Internet or Web address.
World Wide Web Consortium(W3C) is a consortium that produces standards recommendations for the World Wide Web. According to W3C, "The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential". These recommendations e.g. HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.1, CSS 2.1, etc. are often called Web Standards.
web page
A single document on the World Wide Web that is specified by a unique address or URL. A web page may contain text, hyperlinks, and graphics.
Web Server
Web Server is the machine running the web server software(e.g. Apache). It serves various kinds of web documents to a client. It is the web server software which is responsible to send us the reqired data so that we can see the requested web site in a web browser.
web site
A group of related web pages linked by hyperlinks and managed by a single company, organization, or individual. A web site may include text, graphics, audio and video files, and links to other web sites.
World Wide Web
Also known as the Web. A portion of the Internet that is made up of web pages stored by web servers and displayed by clients called web browsers (such as KompoZer).

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TeliuTe, 07 July 2009

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